Birth: 22 November 1785
Place or Registered Place of Birth: Warwick, Warwickshire
Baptism: 11 December 1785
Place of Baptism: St. Anne Soho, Westminster, London, Middlesex
Death: 13 September 1842
Place or Registered Place of Death: Kilburn Priory, Edgware Rd., London, Middlesex
Father: Thomas Byerley (1747-1810)
Mother: Frances Bruckfield (1759-1838)
Spouse(s): William Parkes
Date of Marriage: 21 June 1811
Place or Registered Place of Marriage: St. Mary, Warwick, Warwickshire
Frances Anne Parkes (1814-1884)
Edmund Alexander Parkes (1819-1876)
Elizabeth Gaskell by Angus Easson - 1979 - p. 3
Gaskell was sent briefly to Avonbank school, Stratford upon Avon, run by the Byerley sisters, where, apart from general instruction, dancing, drawing, Italian, French and music were available. The Stratford countryside provided material for Gaskell's first published piece, a description of Clopton Hall (see Chapter 9). The school building she seems to have used for 'My Lady Ludlow' and it has been argued (rightly, I think) that Hollingford in Wives and Daughters is as much of Warwickshire as Knutsford. One of the Byerley sisters (a redoubtable set), Frances, now Mrs William Parkes, had published Domestic Duties: or, Introduction to Young Married Ladies on the Management of their Households (1825), not unlike Mrs Beeton's later Book of Household Management. Formed into a dialogue between an experienced and a newly married wife, the work covers social relationships and moral and religious duties as well as common domestic cares. Whether Gaskell read it, we don't know, though it said nothing on wifely obedience unacceptable to her, Mrs Parkes not maintaining 'the doctrine of passive obedience in the married female to the will of the husband' (p. 3). Though Gaskell might half-jokingly feel 'sometimes coward enough to wish that we were back in the darkness where obedience was the only seen duty of women' (109), she neither expected nor wanted that subservience.
Educating Women By Christine De Bellaigue - 2007 - pp. 80-82
The letters exchanged between the Byerley sisters and their third cousin Josiah Wedgwood reveal how important kinship relationships could be in ensuring the success or failure of an establishment. The Byerleys had drawn on money left to them by their great-uncle to open their Warwick school in 1810. However, rather than drawing it all at once, they had entrusted the legacies to Josiah Wedgwood's care. He sent money as they needed it and kept a close eye on their business. In 1814, he loaned them £230, because at the end of the year Anne Byerley had found that the combined expenses of furnishing new premises and their mother's medical bills exceeded the sisters' income, despite an increase in the number of pupils. Like Lant Carpenter's arrangement with Sarah Bache, it was not an interest-free loan, and the correspondence clearly indicates that the sisters were expected to make regular interest payments until they could pay back the sum borrowed.
The Byerleys also looked to Josiah and to other relatives for advice. In 1810, he contributed to the debate as to whether they should buy or rent a house. Frances Byerley answered, saying that 'Mr Parkes [her future father-in-law], with the rest of our friends here, is of the opinion that it will be much more to our advantage to rent a house". The sisters could rely on the support and experience of a network of friends and relations in financial decision-making. Fanny's response suggests that all advice was carefully evaluated. It was not simply a question of doing is their wealthy uncle suggested.
Family, however, could also be a considerable drain on resources, and the finances of the Byerleys' school improved and declined with the health of family members, including not only that of the sisters themselves, but that of their mother and brothers. The Byerley sons were a particular burden. In 1815 the sisters discovered that their brother Frank had abandoned his medical studies in troubling circumstances, and were keen to find him a new situation 'in which he can begin to regain has character'. The response from Josiah Wedgwood is revealing. He. urges them to encourage Frank to emigrate and advises them not to lend their elder brother Josiah more money. Far from being dependent, the Byerleys were providing for the men of the family.
As the Byerleys' situation indicates, the financial independence of schoolmistresses undermined conventional notions of femininity. Maria soon became confident of her ability to manage money and to stand her ground. When Josiah Wedgwood wrote to request the interest on his loan, she replied that 'I have stated exactly what we owe you, and all the other sums that are set down in your paper, we know nothing about'. Later that year, Josiah asked the sisters to sign an account stating that they had a standing debt with him of £284 9s. 6d. Maria's reply is illuminating. 'We must request you to excuse us from signing the note which you have sent' she writes, 'it may be ignorance on our part but we cannot promise to pay on demand what would entirely ruin us if the demand were made. By 1823 the debt was repaid and Maria wrote jubilantly that 'it gives us satisfaction to find ourselves now quite clear, and with a tolerable school to go on with. The confidence and authority of Maria's letters belies her protestation of ignorance. Similarly, Fanny's claim that her sisters had, a 'dread of involving themselves with pecuniary matters' is surprising, given their successful management of the schools' finances. Perhaps Maria and Fanny were being disingenuous and seeking to appeal to Josiah Wedgwood's sympathy by portraying themselves as women who knew nothing of money. Or perhaps emphasizing their financial inexperience was a way of reconciling their work with conventional notions of femininity. Either way, their letters are evidence of the degree to which the relationship between schoolmistresses and business was complex and ambiguous.
Frances, married to Mr. William Parkes, of the Marble Yard, Warwick, and afterwards of London (Mrs. Parkes was the authoress of " Domestic Duties," and other works), and was the mother of the present Dr. Parkes, of London, whose writings are so well known among the profession, and related also to the present gifted writer, " Bessie Parkes," whose name is so well known to readers; Maria, who died unmarried; Sarah, who also died unmarried; Anne, married to Mr. Samuel Coltman, late of Leicester and of Thornbridge, Derbyshire, and is the only surviving daughter of Mr. Byerley; Jane Margaret, who died unmarried; Elizabeth, married to Mr. Lowndes, of Liverpool; Catherine, married (as second wife) to Dr. Anthony Todd Thomson, President of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, and authoress of many highly popular stories; and Charlotte Octavia, who died young and unmarried. Mr. Byerley was a man of great business capabilities, of scrupulous exactness, and of unwearied industry; and both during his residence in London, where he managed the London business, and at Etruria, he took a very active and useful part in the management of the commercial part of the concern.
The Borough of Warwick
To the west of the town, between Theatre Street and the Common Brook, the land drops away giving a view over the Racecourse. The area was formerly known as Levenhull or Linen Hill and formed part of the possessions of St. Sepulchre's Priory. The Marble House, 'Mr. Yardly's new house', had been built there by c. 1650. Humphrey Yardley sold the house and adjoining land, stretching from Linen Street to the line of Parkes Street, to Francis Smith, the Warwick architect, in 1724. The name Marble Yard, often given to the property, is derived from Smith's marble mason's yard which was on the premises. Smith died in 1738 and his son William in 1747, the property passing to William's sister, Elizabeth, wife of John Stokes of Dippens. Their son, Francis, sold the estate to William Parkes, senior (d. 1806). Parkes increased the estate by acquiring property adjoining to the north, held in 1788 by a Mr. Love, where he built his mill in 1796 and developed Parkes Street and Wallace Street in the year following. William Parkes, the younger, sold the Marble House and his interest in the firm to his uncle, John Parkes, in 1819, but after 1822 when the firm of Parkes, Brookhouse and Crompton collapsed, the property was split.
The Gentleman's Magazine - 1842
Sept. 13. At Killburn Priory, aged 56, Frances, relict of William Parkes, Esq. formerly of Marbleyard House, Warwick.
Thomas Byerley, the son of Thomas Byerley (1707-1761) and Margaret Wedgwood (1720-1777), the daughter of Thomas Wedgwood, was born at Burslem, Stoke Upon Trent, Staffordshire about 1747 and died at Etruria, Stoke Upon Trent, Staffordshire on 11 September 1810.
Frances Bruckfield, the daughter of John Bruckfield (1720-) and Mary, was born about 1759 at Derby in Derbyshire and baptised at All Saints, Derby, Derbyshire on 18 April of that year. Frances died at Worthing in Sussex on 8 January 1838.
Thomas Byerley and Frances Bruckfield were married at Saint Anne Soho, Westminster, London, Middlesex 0n 12 January 1782.
Thomas Byerley (1747 – 11 September 1810) partner in the Wedgwood pottery firm.
He was the son of John Byerley and Margaret Wedgwood, the daughter of Thomas Wedgwood III and sister of Josiah Wedgwood. In 1768 he emigrated to America but returned in 1775 and became a clerk at Etruria, where he became a salesman. After Josiah Wedgwood I's death and after Josiah Wedgwood II moved away he was left in charge of Etruria Works.
He married Frances Bruckfield January 12, 1782. They had 11 children:
Children Jane Frances Byerley
Katherine Byerley (1797–1862), who married Dr. Anthony Todd Thomson
Francis Bruckfield Byerley
Charlotte Octavia Byerley
MARRIAGE: 12 Jan 1782, St Anne Soho, Westminster, MDX
MARRIAGE LICENSE: 09 Jan 1782, Faculty Office
Mr. Byerley married Frances, third daughter of Mr. John Bruckfield, of Kirk Ireton and Derby, a lady possessed of every domestic virtue, and of the purest and most refined tastes. By her, who survived him many years, he had a family of five sons and eight daughters, more than one of whom have been distinguished in the literary world. They were as follows:-Josiah (so named after the great potter), who was a magistrate and merchant at St. Mary's, on the Gambia, where he died; Thomas, who, while in the East India Company's service, was commander of a fort, and died of fever in India, at the age of twenty-three; John, who died at Malta; Francis Bruckfield, who, at the early age of eighteen, died on board ship while returning home from Jamaica; Samuel, now living in Indiana, where he is settled and has a family ; Frances, married to Mr. William Parkes, of the Marble Yard, Warwick, and afterwards of London (Mrs. Parkes was the authoress of " Domestic Duties," and other works), and was the mother of the present Dr. Parkes, of London, whose writings are so well known among the profession, and related also to the present gifted writer, " Bessie Parkes," whose name is so well known to readers; Maria, who died unmarried; Sarah, who also died unmarried; Anne, married to Mr. Samuel Coltman, late of Leicester and of Thornbridge, Derbyshire, and is the only surviving daughter of Mr. Byerley; Jane Margaret, who died unmarried; Elizabeth, married to Mr. Lowndes, of Liverpool; Catherine, married (as second wife) to Dr. Anthony Todd Thomson, President of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, and authoress of many highly popular stories; and Charlotte Octavia, who died young and unmarried. Mr. Byerley was a man of great business capabilities, of scrupulous exactness, and of unwearied industry; and both during his residence in London, where he managed the London business, and at Etruria, he took a very active and useful part in the management of the commercial part of the concern.
The children of Thomas Byerley and Frances Bruckfield were:
Josiah Byerley (1782-)
Thomas Byerley (1783-1806)
Frances Byerley (1785-1842)
Maria Byerley (1786-)
Sarah Byerley (1788-)
John Byerley (1789-)
Ann Byerley (1790-)
Jane Frances Byerley (1794-)
Katherine Byerley (1797-1862)
Francis Bruckfield Byerley (1799-)
Charlotte Octavia Byerley (1801-)